Schematic representation of urokinase receptor. The GPI-anchor links uPAR to the cell membrane making it available for uPA to bind to the receptor (1 A). When the receptor is cleaved between the GPI-anchor and D3, it becomes soluble (suPAR) (1 B). suPAR is a stable protein that can be measured in various body fluids. uPA: urokinase-type plasminogen activator, uPAR: uPA receptor, suPAR: soluble uPAR, 1: Domain 1, D2: Domain 2, D3: Domain

Figure 1. Schematic representation of uPA receptor. The GPI-anchor links uPAR to the cell membrane making it available for uPA to bind to the receptor (1 A). When the receptor is cleaved between the GPI-anchor and D3, it becomes soluble (suPAR) (1 B). suPAR is a stable protein that can be measured in various body fluids. uPAR: uPA receptor, suPAR: soluble uPAR, 1: Domain 1, D2: Domain 2, D3: Domain

The suPAR protein

suPAR is the soluble form of the cell membrane-bound protein uPAR, a three-domain receptor23 mainly expressed on immune cells, including neutrophils, activated T-cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells.

uPAR is released during inflammation or immune activation, and therefore the suPAR level reflects the extent of immune activation in the individual.

The membrane-bound uPAR is illustrated in Figure 1. uPAR is linked to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. The binding of uPA to uPAR facilitates cleavage of the anchor and hence, shedding the receptor.23 

Consequently, once this anchor is cleaved, the protein is released from the membrane and becomes soluble.

Chronic inflammation drives disease – but how can it be measured?

Chronic inflammation is a driver of disease development, disease progression and outcome. Chronic inflammation is derived from lifestyle factors (diet, smoking exercise), genetics and environmental factors (polition, chemicals etc). Also, social factors (e.g. looniness) and stressors (e.g. life stressors such as divorce, bankruptcy, and adverse events in childhood).

But how do you measure chronic inflammation? Traditionally, chronic inflammation has been measured using C-reactive protein (CRP). However, CRP is a fluctuating molecule affected by banal infections and is not sensitive enough to fully capture chronic inflammation.

In comes suPAR. suPAR is a newer biomarker which may, in fact, be a biomarker of chronic inflammation since it is stably associated with inflammation and immune activation; shares the same risk factors as many age-related diseases; is both elevated by and predicts age-related diseases. There is strong evidence that suPAR is a prognostic marker of adverse events, morbidity, and mortality. It is associated with immune activity and prognosis across diverse conditions, including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.

All individuals have a basic suPAR level

which simplifies statistics

suPAR is a measure of chronic inflammation

and is involved in both development and progression of disease

A high level of chronic inflammation is consistently a significant predictor of adverse outcomes

also when adjusting for other variables such as age, sex and disease and other biomarkers

In the general population, individuals with low suPAR age slower

Low suPAR individuals have lower risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and organ failure

In longevity Lifespan is often understood as the number of years in one's life, while healthspan is the quality of those years”

suPAR is a stable, unspecific biomarker across diseases​

suPAR is prognostic in more than 20 disease areas

suPAR amongst hospital functions

suPARnostic ® can affect the work of various healthcare professionals such as lab technicians, clinicians, triage nurses etc.

Emergency department

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Documented by 1000+ peer-reviewed publications

Here you can find a summary of the research done on suPAR within different disease areas.

* suPAR values should be used in conjunction with clinical findings and the results of other laboratory parameters. suPAR values alone are not indicative of the need for mechanical ventilation.

1. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as an early predictor of severe respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Rovina N et al. Crit Care. 2020 4(1):187. (LINK: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32354367/
2. Soluble Urokinase Receptor (SuPAR) in COVID-19-Related AKI. Azam TU et al. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 (LINK: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32963090/
3. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor: A Biomarker for Predicting Complications and Critical Care Admission of COVID-19 Patients. Chalkias A et al. Mol Diagn Ther. 2020 (5):517-521. (LINK: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32613288/
4. COVID-19 and pneumonia: a role for the uPA/uPAR system. D’Alonzo D et al. Drug Discov Today. 2020 (8):1528-1534. Review. (LINK: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32562843/

1000+

published suPAR studies in leading medical journals

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