Mon Sep 05 2022
Soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels are predictive of COVID-19 severity: an Italian experience
suPAR levels correlate with disease severity and survival rate of COVID-19 patients, representing a promising prognostic biomarker for the risk assessment of the disease.
The soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) has been identified as a reliable marker of COVID-19 severity, helping in personalizing COVID-19 therapy. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between suPAR levels and COVID-19 severity, in relation to the traditional inflammatory markers.
Sera from 71 COVID-19 patients were tested for suPAR levels using Chorus suPAR assay (Diesse Diagnostica Senese SpA, Italy). suPAR levels were compared with other inflammatory markers: IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, circulating calprotectin, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and Neutrophil/Lymphocytes Ratio (NLR). Respiratory failure, expressed as P/F ratio, and mortality rate were used as indicators of disease severity.
A positive correlation of suPAR levels with IL-6 (r = 0.479, p = 0.000), TNF-α (r = 0.348, p = 0.003), circulating calprotectin (r = 0.369, p = 0.002), neutrophil counts (r = 0.447, p = 0.001), NLR (r = 0.492, p = 0.001) has been shown. Stratifying COVID-19 population by suPAR concentration above and below 6 ng/mL, we observed higher levels of circulating calprotectin (10.1 μg/mL, SD 7.9 versus 6.4 μg/mL, SD 7.5, p < 0.001), higher levels of P/F ratio (207.5 IQR 188.3 vs 312.0 IQR 127.8, p = 0.013) and higher mortality rate. Median levels of suPAR were increased in all COVID-19 patients requiring additional respiratory support (Nasal Cannula, Venturi Mask, BPAP and CPAP) (6.5 IQR = 4.9) compared to the group at room air (4.6 IQR = 4.2).