In a Danish cohort of healthy individuals significantly higher suPAR values were found in those, who developed type 2 diabetes1. In the group of middle-aged non-smokers, the risk of developing diabetes was significantly higher in individuals with a high suPAR level compared to those with a low suPAR level. The increased risk remained following adjustment for fasting blood glucose, age, sex, and insulin levels. A similar risk was found in the elderly1.
Similarly, among overweight individuals (BMI 25-30) with impaired glucose tolerance and a high suPAR level an increased risk of developing diabetes is observed2.
In type 1 diabetics, suPAR is strongly associated with development of diabetes complications. In a study published in Diabetes Care (2019), 36 out of 37 patients that developed end-stage renal disease within the 6-year follow-up period were in the highest suPAR quartile. Patients in the two lowest suPAR quartiles seemed to be protected against developing renal complications3. A low suPAR level was also protective against decline in GFR ≥30%, cardiovascular disease and mortality3,4.