suPAR in the General Population

The following factors are associated with an elevated suPAR level:

  • Daily smoking1–5
  • Obesity3
  • Previous AMI3
  • Low HDL cholesterol/high LDL cholesterol1–3
  • Unhealthy diet3,10
  • Physical inactivity3
  • Age1–3,5,6

Moreover, an elevated suPAR level is associated with future incidence of:

  • Mortality1
  • Cardiovascular diseases1,2,8
  • Cancer1,5
  • Type 2 diabetes1
  • Renal failure7

Finally, a change towards a healthier lifestyle is associated with a suPAR decrease – and the resultant suPAR is predictive of outcome (mortality). Hence, suPAR is not a death sentence – it is an early warning signal8.